The Russian Program Of Lunar Exploration

The second stage: 2028-2030 years

The second stage is transitional. Program developers expect that by this time the country will have the heavy class rocket with carrying capacity of about 90 tons (on low Earth orbit). In these years it is planned to developt operations about landing manned mission on the Moon. It is assumed the astronauts’ flights to lunar orbit by the new spacecraft PTK NP, the lunar vehicle dock with fuel modules and reusable module with the landing apparatus. The latter must pick up several times from the surface of the Moon samples of ladustamise soil, which astronauts will be able to deliver on the Earth. The program of mining operations includes refueling and landing module on the Moon’s orbit.
The third stage: 2030-2040 years
During this period it should be created “lunar polygon” with the first elements of the infrastructure. Manned flights are assumed to be only in the form of short-term visiting expeditions. The goal of the astronauts will be maintenance of equipment, machinery and scientific equipment.
The fourth stage: behind the planning horizon
After 2040 on the basis of the lunar base it should be built a permanently manned lunar base with astronomical observatory elements. Workers on the base will be in charge of monitoring the Earth, testing the use of lunar resources, testing of new space equipment needed for expeditions into deep space.